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2023 - The Year That Was

Places impact you for a variety of reasons. And the same place impacts different people in different ways. This is especially true when it comes to spiritual experiences, where every single person’s experience is unique. And personally, every spiritual experience is unique, the same person can have different deeply spiritual experiences at different places, at different times. This thought has emerged because of my own experiences over the years, but especially so this year, with different and unique experiences at various places I have visited recently. I began this year with a visit to Baroda (Vadodara) with friends. It was meant to be a relaxed trip, a touristy trip, with our sons. We enjoyed ourselves to the hilt, but the highlight of that trip was a visit to the Lakulisha temple at Pavagadh. It was the iconography of the temple that I connected with, and I spent a few hours simply lost in the details of the figures carved around the temple. There was an indefinable connect with

Mirjan fort - Lost in Time

“This is what Sleeping Beauty’s castle must have looked like” I think, as I survey the scene. A thick carpet of green covers everything in sight. Even the towering walls rise without once breaking the green cover, adding to the feeling that I am in a land long forgotten, left behind in time.

Side view of the fort - On the right are the cleared portions, and on the left, the portions covered in centuries of foliage

I am not too far from the truth – I am at Mirjan fort, near Gokarna. The fort, built first in the 12th century and extended in the 16th century, has a long and glorious history. It was the seat of Rani Chennabhairadevi, ruling under the aegis of the Vijayanagar Empire. She was better known as the Pepper Queen, or Raina da Pimenta, as she controlled the spice trade in the area. The fort was especially conducive for trade, located as it was, on the banks of the Aghanashini River, a branch of the Sharavati. The fort changed hands many times, from the Rani to the Sultans of Bijapur, the Marathas, and eventually the British. The unification of the area under the British, as well as the setting up of newer and modern ports along the coast, ultimately rendered the fort ineffectual, and it was abandoned, leaving nature to reclaim it for her own.

The front view of the fort

It is only recently that the fort has come into focus again, and efforts are on to restore it, at least to show us a glimpse of its past glory. As of now, the archaeological department has only managed to clear the front part of the fort, and part of its ramparts. Much is left to be done, as is apparent from the rear portions of the fort, which is what remind us of Sleeping Beauty’s castle, forgotten for a hundred years.

One of the turrets, yet to be cleared, covered with foliage.

From the outside, it is still apparent why the fort was such a stronghold. Spread over an area of 10 acres, huge double walls protect the interiors, and the whole fort is surrounded by a moat, which, in its heyday, was connected to the river, fed by canals which continue to irrigate the fertile fields which surround the area.

These are the outer walls of the fort. Apparently, what appears to be the ground, was once the moat.

The fort has 4 entrances, of which only the main one has been cleared so far. Among the others, one was for sole use of the royal family – a private entrance, so to speak; one was a direct approach from the river, and the last one was for the entry of goods – a service entrance. These entrances are barely visible, covered by ruins and foliage.

Another view oft the fort. Difficult to believe there is a fort there under all that green, isn't it? Can you spot the entrance which is almost completely covered? 

A closer view, showing the entrance, which has been partly cleared, but barricaded. 

The inside of the fort is equally impressive, especially when it comes to the planning that went into it.  Recent excavations have revealed, among others, an audience hall, part of what must have been the kitchen, and also mechanisms of water transport and storage. There are deep wells inside the fort, providing fresh water, and connecting them, water channels. There are water troughs for the horses, tanks storing water for the kitchen, and even provision for storage and disposal of waste water. Of course, most of these are in ruins, due to the neglect of centuries, and we can just get a glimpse into what made the fort function so well in its prime.

One of the wells inside the fort.

View from the top.. those are remnants of the audience chamber (straight ahead), and other rooms which made up this part of the fort.   you can get a glimpse of the river behind...

Under the branches of a tree are some idols. These are the only evidence of a temple inside the fort. The biggest idol found here is that of the goddess Mahishasura-Mardini. In all probability, the temple was dedicated to her. Facing her is a stone image of a lion, her vehicle. Around them, lie various stone sculptures, mostly of snakes. The snake is venerated in this part of the country. It is no surprise to see them here. More interesting are the hero stones, and stones which seem to tell stories, lying broken by the side. Unfortunately, there is nothing to tell us what they are.

The tree with idols under it

Mahishasura Mardini

What we can see of the fort is simply the tip of the iceberg. Literally, it’s only the top portion of the fort which is accessible today. More interesting are the underground chambers and passages, built for protection and to facilitate escape, but which today lie in ruins, and are unapproachable. The ASI is, to give them credit, trying to restore the fort to its former glory. The fort was built using the locally available laterite stones, and we saw ASI personnel at work, trying to restore the turrets with remnants from the ruins or similar laterite stones, still plentiful in the area.

Another section of the fort. where work is going on, clearing the debris of centuries

And thus, work goes on, trying to reclaim our heritage from the passage of time. Meanwhile, nature continues her work, scattering seeds into new crevices, growing moss over newly laid bricks, the monsoons aiding her in her work. And the cows continue to graze, oblivious to their role in this clash between humanity and nature, unaware of the history beneath their hooves. And as we turn back, and bid goodbye to Mirjan fort, there is a tiny part of me, which wishes the fort stayed as it was, a fairy tale castle, hidden from vandals by nature.

Now that you have read about the fort, let me take you on a photographic tour.... 

Let us begin with the front view... Looks like a regular fort, doesn't it? 

And this is where we find the resemblance to Sleeping Beauty's castle. All overgrown, it shows just how long the fort has been forgotten

Walking into the light... entering the fort

Outer walls and inner walls... a well fortified place this must have been! 

Inside.... the different levels.. and cows grazing!!

One of the towers... with a flag pole now

A different view of the same tower

Entry to the lower portions... closed... this one leads to a well...but there are others, which may lead elsewhere!

One of the hero stones,

Another relic... wonder what it was... 

And another one

Icons of snakes..

And another tower

A view of the fort walls, from the inside

The outer walls, but from another section

A different section of the fort. This must have been the residential part.

A lone stone pillar seems unaffected by the moss.
The only structure here which isn't green in colour!!! Unfortunately, no one seemed to have any idea of what it was or why it was there. 

Walking on the ramparts of the fort. Look how wide it is. 

A set of stairs leading downwards... to the interiors of the fort, from the ramparts.

And a final glimpse as we head back to the present.


  • Location: Mirjan Fort is located at Kumta, about 10 Km from Gokarna.
  • How to reach:
    • By Road: Kumta is on the highway, and is well connected to both, Mangalore as well as Karwar and Goa by bus. Buses from Mumbai also halt at Kumta. Autos are available from Kumta to visit the fort. It is easier to stay  in or around Gokarna and make a visit to the fort.
    • By Train: Certain trains on the Mumbai – Mangalore – Trivandrum route stop at Kumta. The other nearest railway station would be Gokarna Road. Regular passenger trains run on the route, and make a stop at Kumta.
    • By Air: Mangalore (200 Km) or Goa (180 Km) would be the nearest airports.
  • Where to Stay: There are plenty of hotels in the area, suiting every possible budget, from beach shacks to homestays to five star resorts. However, most of them would be situated around Gokarna, Udupi, Mangalore, Karwar and Goa. 

This post was originally published on Travel Thru History. You can see it here


  1. Looks lovely with all that green plastering. Got to visit it next time am in Gokarna. Lovely post!

    1. it does look beautiful! you should certainly go there. after all, you live comparatively near :)

  2. Amazing Discovery as usual ! Keep it up Anu :)

  3. The wonderful captures says it all.
    Historical and beautiful, is what comes to my mind after going through the post. :)
    Thanks for the share!

  4. It's such a pity that the fort is not entirely cleared, but what I find amazing is that this construction has been frequently used by a variety of people, from the 12 century onwards! Travelling really enables you to discover fascinating places, indeed.

    1. Thank you, Marcia! But incidentally, I also felt that the fort was so interesting because it was still all covered over... so, for once, we actually see what happens to something when it is left for forgotten!

  5. I was in Goa last year and wanted to visit this place but never got the chance to do so. Mirjan fort is such a beautiful place. Everybody can see it’s beauty in the pictures. Anuradha thanks for sharing these images, I had a wonderful time reading your blog.

    1. You are welcome, Lalit! So sorry that you couldnt go and see it for yourself. but there s always a next time!


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