Skip to main content

Featured Post

2023 - The Year That Was

Places impact you for a variety of reasons. And the same place impacts different people in different ways. This is especially true when it comes to spiritual experiences, where every single person’s experience is unique. And personally, every spiritual experience is unique, the same person can have different deeply spiritual experiences at different places, at different times. This thought has emerged because of my own experiences over the years, but especially so this year, with different and unique experiences at various places I have visited recently. I began this year with a visit to Baroda (Vadodara) with friends. It was meant to be a relaxed trip, a touristy trip, with our sons. We enjoyed ourselves to the hilt, but the highlight of that trip was a visit to the Lakulisha temple at Pavagadh. It was the iconography of the temple that I connected with, and I spent a few hours simply lost in the details of the figures carved around the temple. There was an indefinable connect with

Around Gwalior - The Chausath Yogini Temple at Mitavali

We caught our first glimpse of the temple when Samhith stopped to play in a canal cutting across the road. 

We sat on the steps, enjoying the feel of the flowing water on our feet, staring into the distance, where the single hillock rose, and the circular walls of the temple rose above it. This was our first sight of the Chausath Yogini temple at Mitavali. (Also spelled as Mitawali, Mitaoli or Mitauli). 

Little is known about Yoginis and their temples. They are usually considered to be 64 in number, but there are also instances of temples being constructed to 42 or even 81 yoginis. They are usually depicted as beautiful women, but with heads of birds or animals, adding to the mystery surrounding them. Dr. Vidya Dehejia, who has done extensive research on the Yoginis, says

“…the Yoginīs formed a group of goddesses closely connected with the Kaula cult, and more specially with that branch of the Kaula path known as Yoginī Kaula. Visualized generally as sixty four in number, the Yoginīs were divided into eight kulas, or groupings of eight, and pictured as forming a circle around Siva as Bhairava. They were invoked by Kaula sādhakas to protect followers of the Kaula path and worshipped in order to gain a variety of magical abilities. Temples of the Yoginīs must have been constructed by such Kaula believers.”*

The temple at Mitavali is believed to have been built by the Kacchapaghata ruler, Devapala (1055 to 1075 A.D.), though the inscriptions at the temple are from much later, suggesting that the temple was restored, or re-embellished, or donations were made during that period. The latest dated inscription is from A.D.1503, the period when Man Singh Tomar ruled over Gwalior, suggesting that the temple was in use even then.

A smoothened circular stone structure outside the temple, with inscriptions.

The temple’s location, atop the hillock in the middle of nowhere seems to be typical of most Yogini shrines. These Yogini cults were tantric in nature, and had their roots in tribal worship, well outside the orthodox Brahminical tradition of the period. The cult seems to have been popular from the 9th to the 12th centuries, and it has been suggested that the constant threat of war, and attack by foreign invaders would have aided their popularity, with the powerful deities being invoked for protection and victory in war. The king would have patronized such temples for these purposes alone, keeping them away from the cities, while building traditional Brahminical shrines within the city.

Climbing up the hill, we were more than aware of our solitude. Our driver had stopped by the car, uninterested in climbing up to see an empty temple no one visited, and there wasn’t another soul around.

I walked slowly, admiring the beautiful patterns in the dendritic sandstone, which was such a common feature here. They added a touch of nature even to monuments, reminding us that the stones were here long before humans arrived to use them!

Samhith of course, had already reached the top, and stood waiting impatiently, as I paused to catch my breath. The temple stood before us, its doorway and the steps leading up to it the only break in the perfect circle of the exterior.

Almost all Yogini temples are circular in shape, and open to the skies, with a central shrine for Shiva or Bhairava. The Yoginis themselves are in niches or smaller shrines on the inner walls of the temple. They also stand out in their simplicity, in sharp contrast to the Brahminical shrines which are elaborately and intricately carved, with human as well as divine figures.

One of the few sculptures on the outer wall of the temple, depicting a couple, probably Shiva and Parvati

It was an eerie experience, to be up here, all alone. Our sole companion here was a dog, fast asleep by the door. The door itself appeared to be closed, and I hesitated, wondering if I should disturb the perfect isolation of the site. Even as I hesitated, Samhith walked up and tried the door, which opened at once. As for the dog, it woke up and walked away, leaving us free to enter. Having come so far, we didn’t hesitate any more, but walked in.

The temple is magnificent in its simplicity. The shrines of the 64 Yoginis, plus one extra shrine (probably for the main goddess) stand in a perfect circle, with a row of pillars forming a walkway, on a raised platform, which runs along the niches.

The niches must have originally housed the Yoginis, but sadly none of them remain today. Instead, the shrines house lingams, without their yonis. These are believed to have been added in more recent times, after the temple lost its importance and the Yogini images disappeared.

At the centre is a circular pavilion, with two concentric rings of pillars. Originally, this shrine must have housed an image of Shiva, but now, it is empty.

A Shiva linga stands alone, just outside this shrine today.

It is very interesting to see that there are clear channels for water to flow, and outlets are provided from all the raised platforms, and these channels all lead outside. It is clear that this must have been provided for a dual purpose – to deal with rainwater, since it’s an open shrine, and also to channel water from ritualistic oblations to the deities.

In that absolute silence, where even Samhith was quiet, unlike his usual boisterous self, it felt as if our every sense was heightened. I could almost hear my heart beating louder, and it was a disconcerting feeling. Though there wasn’t a single person around, and the niches were empty of the deities they were made for, it almost felt like I was intruding. Calling to Samhith, I walked out, and he followed, for once, without an argument. Outside, he found his voice again, asking why we were rushing out, when we had just come. And for once, I had no reply.

As we began our descent, I looked back one last time, and there was the dog, sitting by the door, looking at us leave. Call it a flight of fancy if you will, but at that moment, I wondered if it was the dog I was seeing, or Bhairava himself**, the natural guardian of the temple!

* Dr. Vidya Dehejia, Yogini Cult and Temples, A Tantric Tradition, National Museum, New Delhi, 1986
** Bhairava is usually accompanied by a dog

  • Location: Mitavali / Mitawali / Mitaoli is located about 40 Km from Gwalior.
  • How to Reach: Take a car from Gwalior. Combine with Padhavali and Batesar.
    • Dr. Vidya Dehejia’s book on Yoginis, published by the National Museum Delhi, and is available at the museum, when in stock.


  1. One can only wonder how the temple would have looked when all the statues were there. Would they all look similar or all of them would be different? Did these 64 yoginis have a special characteristic of their own.

    Thanks for telling about Dr Dehejia's book - will try to pick a copy when I visit Delhi next.

  2. It must have been absolutely spellbinding with all those Yoginis in their niches. Yes, they must have had their own characteristics, just like they have in the other temples which still have the idols. Dr. Dehejia's book is just superb, but sadly not available right now, even at the National Museum. When i visited, they said it was out of print. I hope they print again soon. I borrowed it from a friend to read, but would love to buy it too, if its available, let me know if you get it.

  3. Stunning temple and the architecture is simply awesome. I will soon plan to visit this temple.

  4. Thanks for sharing such a great post about Gwalior

  5. It's really beautiful the way you have written this post. I loved it.

  6. Thanks for your great information. I really like this temple you mention. I like the architecture of the temple and I love to visit the temple.

  7. Lovely post. I would like to thank you for sharing your thoughts and time into the stuff you post!!

  8. Great Place! a historical sight! I hope some day I can go there. Thanks for sharing.. Keep posting.


Post a Comment

Thanks so much for stopping by. Please leave a comment for me so that I will know you have been here....

Popular posts from this blog

Gokarna Part II – The Five Lingams

We continued our Gokarna trip by visiting four other Shiva temples in the vicinity, all connected to the same story of Gokarna. The story of Gokarna mentions the Mahabaleshwara Lingam as the one brought from Kailas by Ravana, and kept at this place on the ground by Ganesha. (See my earlier post- Gokarna – Pilgrimage and Pleasure). However, the story does not end here. It is believed that, in his anger, Ravana flung aside the materials which covered the lingam- the casket, its lid, the string around the lingam, and the cloth covering it. All these items became lingams as soon as they touched the ground. These four lingams, along with the main Mahabaleshwara lingam are collectively called the ‘ Panchalingams’ . These are: Mahabaleshwara – the main lingam Sajjeshwar – the casket carrying the lingam. This temple is about 35 Kms from Karwar, and is a 2 hour drive from Gokarna. Dhareshwar – the string covering the lingam. This temple is on NH17, about 45 Kms south of Gokarna. Gunavanteshw

Rama Temple, Gokarna

To my right , the waves rush to the shore, eager to merge with the sand. To my left, the same waves crash against the rocks, their spray diverting my reverie as I ponder over the beauty of nature, and wonder what first brought people here. Was it this beauty that encouraged them to build a temple here, or was it the fresh, sweet spring water flowing from the hill here that made this place special? No matter what the reason, I am glad my auto driver brought me here. We are at the Rama temple in Gokarna, just a few minutes away from the Mahabaleshwara Temple, yet offering so different a perspective.

Pandharpur Yatra 2023

The first time I visited Pandharpur was back in 2007 . The names Vitthal and Pandharpur, were just names to me. I had heard of them, but that was about it. Seeing the lord standing on the brick, hands on his hips, was memorable, but more memorable was the sight that greeted us as we walked out of the main sanctum of the temple. In the mandap just outside were a group of devotees singing abhangs , and dancing. This was the first time I had heard abhangs , and even almost 15 years later, I can remember the welling of feeling within me, listening to the songs, and how fascinated I was by the sight of the devotees dancing, lost in their love of the Lord. Over the years, as I have read more about Vitthal, and participated in Ashadi Ekadashi programmes at Puttaparthi, that first experience has stayed clear in my mind and heart. Every time I tell my Balvikas students of the saints who sang of Vitthala, it is that experience that I re-live. I visited Pandharpur again, in 2010, but that experie